Do nugododeƒe

Tso Wikipedia
Dzo yi: kuɖɔɖoɖo, dii
Afɔdzido si dzi wobɔbɔna ɖo kple agbadɔ ƒe nɔnɔmetata.[1]

Do nugododeƒe or afɔdzidedo nye nugodo deƒe aɖe si lɔa amemi ɖe do si woɖe ɖe anyigba la. Mezana tsi o loo alo liter de etɔ ko atsɔ tutu mi la woadzo to ekɔkɔ ɖe miadzi me.[2] Ne wotui nyuie eye wole be nɛ ha nyuie la woateŋu aɖe dɔlekuiwomama dzi kpɔtɔ to afɔdzi si le anyi gbadzaa la to nugodo dede ɖe anyi gbadzaa me.[3][4] Esia ɖea dɔlekuiwo mama le nugodo kple nuɖuɖu tso nudzodzuiwo gbɔ kpɔtɔna.[3] Dɔlekui siawo koŋ nana afɔdzidededɔ si mana bɔbɔe kple ŋɔviwo le dɔkaviwo me dɔ.[4] Afɔdzidededɔ si mana bɔbɔe la hea ku vɛ na ɖevi siwo mexɔ ƒe atɔ o la si de million 0.7 le ƒe 2011 eye wobu million 250 suku ŋkekewo.[4][5] Do nugododeƒewo nye mɔnu si dzi woato ama mi tso amewo gbɔ.[3]

Akpa etɔe le afɔdzido ŋu: do ɖeɖe ɖe anyigba, do vi ɖeɖe ɖe anyigba gota, kple xɔ.[2] Edoa yi tome abe meter 3&nbsp (afɔ 10&nbsp) eye wokeke abe m 1 (afɔ 3.2 ).[2] World Health Organization ɖoe be woatui ɖe afisi eƒe didime tso aƒeme gbɔ anɔ bɔbɔe na egbɔ yiyi eye eƒe ʋeʋe ha manye tukaɖa o.[3] Ele be eƒe tete ɖe tometsi kple gotatsi na didi vie be mahe pollution ve o. Mele be edo si woɖe ɖe atia nawu centimeter 25 (inche 9.8 ) be ɖeviwo mage dze eme o. Kekle megaɖo eme o be nudzodzoewo makpɔ mɔ age ɖe eme o. Ahia be woatu doa ne wome le ezam o.[3] Ne edoa yɔ abe meter 0.5 (afɔ 1.6), ele be woalɔe alo woatu yeye woaɖe xɔa ɖa alo woagbugbɔ tui ɖe teƒe yeyea.[6] Belele na fecal sludge si woɖe tso doa me nyea nusese. Ne womewɔe nyuie o la, ehea yame kple lamese tukaɖa va nɛ.

Woateŋu tu afɔdzido ɖe dzi le mɔ geɖewo me. Ɖekae nye woana mɔ ya ƒe dodo le eme va gota. Esia hea ya ƒe dodo ɖe dzi eye woɖea eƒe ʋeʋe dzi kpɔtɔ na. Egahea nudzodzoewo ɖa ne woxe eta kple mesh (zigeɖe wowɔe kple fiberglass). Afɔdzisiawo ƒomevi mehia be woatu doa le gota o.[6] Tutuɖedzi mɔnu bubuwoe nye woatui be aɖuɖɔ atsa yiɖe doa me eye woatu gota godzi woase kple ekpe alo cement kpeviwo be woanɔ te sesie.[2][6]

Vaseɖe ƒe 2013 me la, ame million 1.77 za na afɔdzido.[7] Esia bɔ wu le dukɔ siwo le tsitsim kple le kɔƒe kpakple gbedada teƒewo. Le ƒe 2011 me la, nugododeƒe nyuie me le ame million 2.5 billion si o eye billion ɖeka denɛ ɖe nugodo dede ɖe anyi gbadzaa woƒe gotanɔƒewo.[8] Asia ƒe nyiehe kple Sub-Sahara ƒe Africa woe si nugododeƒe nyuie me li o.[8] Le dukɔmayiŋgɔ me la, afɔdzido tutu xɔ asi abe USD 25 kple 60.[9] Belele nɛ edziedzi axɔ abe USD 1.5 kple 4 na ame ɖeka le ƒe ɖeka me; esi amewomenya o.[10] Le kɔƒe du aɖewo India me la, woɖo "Ne Nugododeƒe Meli o la, Maɖe Nyɔnu o" ɖoɖowo anyi be woatsɔ he afɔdzitutu ɖe dzi to nyɔnuwo ƒe gbegbe be yewomaɖe ŋtsu si si afɔdzi me li o.[11][12]

Referensiwo[trɔ asi le eŋu | trɔ asi le etsoƒe ŋu]

  1. WEDC. Latrine slabs: an engineer’s guide, WEDC Guide 005 (PDF). Water, Engineering and Development Centre The John Pickford Building School of Civil and Building Engineering Loughborough University. p. 22. ISBN 978 1 84380 143 6. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Tilley, E., Ulrich, L., Lüthi, C., Reymond, Ph. and Zurbrügg, C. (2014). Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (2 ed.). Dübendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag). ISBN 9783906484570. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 "Simple pit latrine (fact sheet 3.4)". who.int. 1996. Retrieved 15 August 2014. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 "Call to action on sanitation" (pdf). United Nations. Retrieved 15 August 2014. 
  5. Walker, CL; Rudan, I; Liu, L; Nair, H; Theodoratou, E; Bhutta, ZA; O'Brien, KL; Campbell, H; Black, RE (Apr 20, 2013). "Global burden of childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea.". Lancet 381 (9875): 1405–16. PMID 23582727. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(13)60222-6. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 François Brikké (2003). Linking technology choice with operation and maintenance in the context of community water supply and sanitation (PDF). World Health Organization. p. 108. ISBN 9241562153. 
  7. Graham, JP; Polizzotto, ML (May 2013). "Pit latrines and their impacts on groundwater quality: a systematic review.". Environmental health perspectives 121 (5): 521–30. PMID 23518813. doi:10.1289/ehp.1206028. 
  8. 8.0 8.1 Progress on sanitation and drinking-water - 2014 update. (pdf). WHO. 2014. pp. 16–20. ISBN 9789241507240. 
  9. Selendy, Janine M. H. (2011). Water and sanitation-related diseases and the environment challenges, interventions, and preventive measures. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley-Blackwell. p. 25. ISBN 9781118148600. 
  10. Sanitation and Hygiene in Africa Where Do We Stand?. Intl Water Assn. 2013. p. 161. ISBN 9781780405414. 
  11. Global Problems, Smart Solutions: Costs and Benefits. Cambridge University Press. 2013. p. 623. ISBN 9781107435247. 
  12. Stopnitzky, Yaniv (12 December 2011). [ http://blogs.worldbank.org/impactevaluations/haryanas-scarce-women-tell-potential-suitors-no-loo-no-i-do-guest-post-by-yaniv-stopnitzky "Haryana's scarce women tell potential suitors: "No loo, no I do""] Check |url= scheme (help). Development Impact. Blog of World Bank. Retrieved 17 November 2014.